Influences of the parameter variation during formation and aging as well as validation by a modified formation system

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Motivation and procedure

Formation is the most time-consuming process step in the production of lithium-ion cells. To reduce its duration and the associated investment and production efforts, it is essential to gain a basic understanding of the complex coherences between different parameters such as duration, formation procedure and external influences. The consequences of variation of these parameters on the resulting cell characteristics must be understood within the scope of this project so that optimization measures can be derived.

Research objectives

  • Understand the consequences of thermal and mechanical influences (static and dynamic) on the formation process
  • Linking the external influences with the charge state of the cell
  • Identification of energy loss causes and derivation of countermeasures
  • Development of a clearly shortened formation process

Research and project partners

  • RWTH Aachen University
  • elenia Institute of High Voltage Engineering and Electric Power Systems
  • MEET Battery Research Center
  Copyright: © PEM RWTH Aachen



Christian Offermanns



+49 170 2327976


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The project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research as part of the "ProZell" competence cluster during the period from 05/01/2017 to 04/30/2019.